Dr. Ragheb El-Sergani clarified it that Allah, Almighty, has set Shura (consultation) in the form of greater part to keep safe the lives of peoples through a set of criteria deter people to consult on something displeases Allah.
Dr. Ragheb stressed that it is common misunderstanding for some people to believe that democracy and consultation are synonyms in the viewpoint of the west. How different they are!
He goes on illustrating the democracy appeared in Greece which meant people's rule.
In the past, in Greece, India and Rome, democracy was interpreted in the form that people may reach an agreement on choosing ruler, law and legislation. And, as a result of the fact that personal inclinations are inherent into the heart of every human, they were in most cases to approve injustice and falsehood.
Dr. Ragheb exemplified it by the injustice endorsed by democracy in Greece where slaves were humiliated to the very sense and also they believed that Allah has created the strong to overcome the weak.
He then went on declaring the disadvantage of democracy that it gives no reference to the divine revelation, however; it is applied in accordance to the whims of people which indeed lead them astray from the straight path.
Dr. Ragheb stated that Allah revealed Islam to His Messenger Muhammad to guard humanity from jumbling in the rule regulations. Allah made consultation to guard people, namely Allah set the lawful and unlawful in a way makes people reap their benefits as Allah is All-Wise, Expert and All-Knowing who know the aspects of interest and harm to His servants to the Day of Judgment (who enjoins upon them what is right and forbids them what is wrong and makes lawful for them the good things and prohibits for them the evil), Al-`Araf, 157.
Dr. Ragheb declared that the difference between consultation and democracy is intrinsic that democracy must mainly meet standards of the Islamic Law and people are not permitted to come to agreement on something contrary to them. To exemplify, people are not permitted to consult on if drinking wine is permissible or non-permissible, because Allah, Almighty made it unlawful in the Glorious Quran where He said: (O you who have believed, indeed, intoxicants, gambling, [sacrificing on] stone alters [to other than Allah], and divining arrows are but defilement from the work of Satan, so avoid it that you may be successful.), Al-Maedah, 90.
On the contrary; democracy permits people to consult on every thing. For example, in France, they reached an agreement to make it prohibited for the Muslim women to wear veil and they endorsed nudeness and lewdness.
Dr. Ragheb pointed out that the regulations set by Allah in regard to the lawful and unlawful when applying consultation are not arbitrary, namely things unlawful are well-known and limited in number if compared to the lawful.
Dr. Ragheb clarified that Allah created humans differing in opinion and made them disposed to gathering and social relation which in turn make them in dire need to a law regulates their affairs as a result of their different races. Therefore, such law is produced in two ways;
1- The autocrat rule where the single ruler regulates the affairs of the subjects in whatever manner he likes.
2- Mutual Consultation on the most preferred law to regulate the affairs of such subjects.
No doubt that the second way is the best in every aspect, even in cases consultation endorses something wrong because, by then, it produces less harm than the first way.
Dr. Ragheb mentioned the fact that man is naturally disposed for inclinations and lusts. Therefore, he may follow his inclination to satisfy his lusts which result in many nations becoming in consensus over the unlawful. Accordingly, to have the majority reaching an agreement on endorsing something not necessarily reflects the good and interest for humanity.
In this respect, Allah, Almighty, pointed out that it is inevitably leading people to get mislead when they come to an agreement on something contradicts the guidance of Allah (And if you obey most of those upon the earth, they will mislead you from the way of Allah), Al-An`am, 116. In this verse, Allah, Almighty, declares that such majority are misguided as they sought guidance other than that of Allah. Verses (And most of them believe not in Allah except while they associate others with Him), Yusuf, 106 and (And most of the people, although you strive [for it], are not believers) Yusuf, 103 prove to the same point.
It is not a sign to correctness to have the majority in consensus over something. The example for this point is clear in the Glorious Quran where Allah, Almighty, mentioned many examples for majorities endorsed things, however; they were indeed misled throughout nation of Noah (PBUH) till the nation of the prophet Muhammad (PBUH).
Dr. Ragheb wondered; who accused Prophet Noah of telling lies and who believed in him? Then he went on saying that the majority accused the prophet Noah of telling lies while the minority believed in him (But none had believed with him, except a few), Hud, 40 and the same occurred with prophets Noah, Saleh and Lout (Peace be upon them all).